Is disaggregation the holy grail of energy efficiency? The case of electricity (2024)

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Disaggregation : The Holy Grail of Energy Efficiency ?

2012 •

Carrie Armel

This paper aims to address two timely energy problems. First, significant low-cost energy reductions can be made in the residential and commercial sectors, but these savings have not been achievable to date. Second, billions of dollars are being spent to install smart meters, yet the energy saving and financial benefits of this infrastructure – without careful consideration of the human element – will not reach its full potential. We believe that we can address these problems by strategically marrying them, using disaggregation. Disaggregation refers to a set of statistical approaches for extracting end-use and/or appliance level data from an aggregate, or wholebuilding, energy signal. In this paper, we explain how appliance level data affords numerous benefits, and why using the algorithms in conjunction with smart meters is the most cost-effective and scalable solution for getting this data. We review disaggregation algorithms and their requirements, and evaluate the extent to whi...

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Sustainability

A Cyber-Physical Approach for Residential Energy Management: Current State and Future Directions

Patricia Franco Troya

In this work, we an envision Home Energy Management System (HEMS) as a Cyber-Physical System (CPS) architecture including three stages: Data Acquisition, Communication Network, and Data Analytics. In this CPS, monitoring, forecasting, comfort, occupation, and other strategies are conceived to feed a control plane representing the decision-making process. We survey the main technologies and techniques implemented in the recent years for each of the stages, reviewing and identifying the cutting-edge challenges that the research community are currently facing. For the Acquisition part, we define a metering device according to the IEC TS 63297:2021 Standard. We analyze the communication infrastructure as part of beyond 2030 communication era (5G and 6G), and discuss the Analytics stage as the cyber part of the CPS-based HEMS. To conclude, we present a case study in which, using real data collected in an experimental environment, we validate proposed architecture of HEMS in monitoring ta...

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Application of load monitoring in appliances' energy management – A review

Mamunu Mustapha, Isiyaku Abubakar

Energy monitoring is one of the important aspects of the energy management, as such there is a need to monitor the power consumption of a premises before planning some of the technical measures to minimize the energy consumption. This paper presents the current state of art of appliances' energy management through Intrusive Load Monitoring (ILM) and Non-intrusive Load Monitoring (NILM), ILM is referred to as distributive sensing and NILM is based on single point sensing. In an effort to explore the recent trend in Energy Management for researchers in the area, various techniques of Home Energy Management (HEM) using ILM and NILM have been analyzed and categorized. Different contributions made by the researchers have been highlighted together with some techniques of reducing power consumption of a building for cost saving and greener environment. This study reveal that there are issues concerning load monitoring and load management that need the attention; issues such as more accurate recognition and the need for monitoring system that can recognize as many kind of loads as possible. More efforts to apply NILM in appliances' energy management is also required. Finally there is need for promoting the energy management culture among the electricity consumers whether in homes, offices or industries. The study will help the researchers in the area to have a clear vision of the recent trends in the area.

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Electronics

General Overview and Proof of Concept of a Smart Home Energy Management System Architecture

Luis Geraldo Meloni

This paper proposes and implements a smart architecture for Home Energy Management Systems (HEMS) that enables interoperability among devices from different manufacturers. This is achieved through the use of standardized elements and the design of an innovative middleware. The system comprises a control unit that communicates with smart outlets using the Wireless Smart Ubiquitous Network (WI-SUN) Home Area Network (HAN) specification, while smart metering is achieved using the WI-SUN Field Area Network (FAN) specification. To manage important data, a web platform and mobile app were created. Additionally, machine learning techniques are utilized to identify energy consumption of individual appliances when only the aggregate energy consumption of the house is available. The architecture presented here supports real-time control of energy use and generation through HEMS, and new devices can be added transparently. Finally, a comparison of the proposed system with similar systems in li...

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Conceptual Framework for Enhancing Energy Disaggregation Using Crowd and Context

Ahmed Sagarwala

This paper explores existing electrical disaggregation workflows and how they can be augmented with context awareness through datasets. The goal of energy disaggregation is to educate consumers on their energy usage. Additional benefits in automation, security, and energy auditing can be realized through disaggregation. The use of statistical analysis provides specific device consumption information that can be actioned to conserve energy in a directed and methodical manner. The current landscape of disaggregation is a complex workflow involving algorithms that detect, analyze and reveal consumption patterns. Disaggregation workflows involve the acquisition of energy signals for an entire building, refining readings, detecting events, extracting features, and classification. Each step in the workflow impacts the accuracy in which individual devices are detected. Disaggregation workflows may incorporate device usage and weather patterns to improve accuracy, but crowdsourcing signatures and the incorporation of datasets that allow for context awareness are strategies yet to be adopted.

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Energies

Smart Plugs: Paradigms and Applications in the Smart City-and-Smart Grid

2019 •

Dr. Nagender Kumar Suryadevara

In the current energy ecosystem, the need for a Hybrid Appliance Load Monitoring System (HALMS) to establish a smarter grid and energy infrastructure is undeniable. The increasing popularity of the Internet of Things (IoT) has suddenly pushed the demand for smart and connected devices. This review introduces the term smart plug as a device that uses IoT for establishing HALMS. These smart plugs are a handy solution to make the so-called ‘dumb’ devices smart. The strategy of smart plugs to enhance the energy management experience in connected spaces is presented. This study extensively highlights the current smart plug technologies and the relevant activities and limitations that need to overcome the requirements of HALMS.

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arXiv (Cornell University)

Data Driven Energy Efficiency in Buildings

2014 •

Pushpendra Singh

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Energy Management Systems

Energy Management for Intelligent Buildings

2011 •

P. Giridhar Kini

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Characterization and Potential of Home Energy Management (HEM) Technology

Rebecca Ford, Beth Karlin, Cassandra Squiers, Kat A. Donnelly

This report reviews the range of Home Energy Management (HEMS) products that are currently on the market, assesses current knowledge on savings and adoption potential, and suggests key considerations for future research and practice. It was produced for Pacific Gas and Electric in order to help inform the development of current and future programs for the utility. The report specifically aims to address the following four questions: 1. What are the key functionalities and characteristics of Home Energy Management? 2. What are the key HEM products in the market, and how do you differentiate them? 3. What is current knowledge on energy savings and adoption potential for HEMS? 4. What are some key considerations for the future of HEMS, and what is the utility’s role? In Chapter 2 the methods used to answer these research questions are discussed. In Chapter 3 the functionalities and characteristics of HEM technologies are discussed, and Chapter 4 outlines actual HEM products on the market and describes them in terms of 11 primary product categories. Chapter 5 presents secondary analysis of the savings potential of HEM technologies, and Chapter 6 addresses what is known and not known regarding near-term adoption potential of HEMS. Chapter 7 provides conclusions and recommendations regarding the uptake and impact of HEMS in California. As HEM technologies become increasingly ubiquitous, with a growing capacity to leverage personalized energy information, there is an urgency to ensure that they are utilized to their full potential. As a whole, this report aims to extend what is known about HEMS and to make suggestions for future research.

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Real-Time Embedded Low-Frequency Load Disaggregation

Stephen Makonin

Understanding how the electrical appliances and devices in a house consume power is an important factor that can allow occupants to make intelligent and informed decisions about conserving energy. This is often not an easy task. These electrical loads can turn ON and OFF either by the actions of occupants, or by automatic sensing and actuation (e.g. thermostat). Even if we could keep track of when loads turned ON and OFF, it is difficult to understand how much a load consumes at any given operational state because of the lack of proper measurement reporting within equipment manuals. Occupants could buy sensors that would help, but this comes at a high financial cost. Power utility companies around the world are now replacing old electro-mechanical meters with digital meters (smart meters) that have enhanced communication capabilities. These smart meters are essentially a free sensor that offer an opportunity to use computation to infer what loads are currently running in a house and...

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Is disaggregation the holy grail of energy efficiency? The case of electricity (2024)

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